EU Shipping Law

Page 572


Introduction to liner conferences: the concept of liner conferences and the United Nations code on liner conferences and the United Nations liner code

A. Introduction

9.001 The purpose of this chapter is to describe the background to liner conferences generally1 and provide an overview of the United Nations’ (“UN”) treatment of liner conferences2 so as to lay the groundwork for future chapters on how the European Union (“EU”) deals, and has dealt, with liner conferences.

B. Liner conferences

9.002 Liner conferences are bodies or associations which consist of shipowners or operators who operate regular shipping services for the carriage of general cargo according to fixed schedules and rates (i.e. prices) on particular pre-determined routes.3 The agreement on rates/prices is a key hallmark of a liner conference agreement. 9.003 Liner services are, in many ways, the opposite of tramp operations. Tramp services typically involve dry or liquid bulk cargo carried on bulk vessels or tankers and operate on routes in response to particular demand (i.e. unlike liner services, they are

Page 573

irregular and not operating on the basis of schedules). The term “tramp services” was defined in the now repealed EU’s Council Regulation 4056/86 as:

“A group of two or more vessels – operating carriers which provide international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular route or routes within specified geographical limits and which has an agreement or arrangement, whatever its nature, within the framework of which they operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions with respect to the provision of liner services.”4

The rest of this document is only available to i-law.com online subscribers.

If you are already a subscriber, click Log In button.

Copyright © 2024 Maritime Insights & Intelligence Limited. Maritime Insights & Intelligence Limited is registered in England and Wales with company number 13831625 and address 5th Floor, 10 St Bride Street, London, EC4A 4AD, United Kingdom. Lloyd's List Intelligence is a trading name of Maritime Insights & Intelligence Limited.

Lloyd's is the registered trademark of the Society Incorporated by the Lloyd's Act 1871 by the name of Lloyd's.